Western Sahara Worldnews
By Paul Day and Edward McAllister
photo by Reuters/Jon Nazca
The number of migrants crossing into Spain by sea from North Africa has doubled in 2017 from last year, outpacing the Libya-Italy route as the fastest growing entry point to Europe.
The United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) says the spike in migrant boats is already putting a lot of stress on Spain’s insufficient migration structures.
* Migrants reaching Spain by sea doubles in 2017
* Spain is fastest growing entry point to Europe
* UNHCR says country ill prepared to handle crisis
Escaping poverty and conflicts, more than 360,000 refugees and migrants arrived on European shores across the Mediterranean last year, according to the UNHCR. More than 85,000 have reached Italy so far this year.
Spain’s interior ministry did not return calls and emails seeking comment.
While the Italian sea route remains the most popular overall with 59,000 migrants between January and May, up 32 percent from last year, the Spanish route further west has gathered steam with 6,800 migrants using it in the same period, a 75 percent increase from 2016.
In June, the trend was even more pronounced as 1,900 migrants, mostly young men originating from Guinea, Ivory Coast, Gambia and Cameroon, reached the shores of the Southern region of Andalusia, quadrupling the numbers registered the same month last year.
Further South, just as dramatic is the fall in the number of migrants spotted in the Agadez region of Niger, a key stop on the way to Libya from West Africa.
“People are talking about going to Spain. It seems like it is safer to go through Morocco to Spain than through Libya. The difference is that Libya doesn’t have a president and Morocco does – there are not guns like in Libya,” said Buba Fubareh, a 27-year-old mason from Banjul, Gambia, who tried and failed to get to Europe via Libya earlier this year.
Many African migrants passing through Libya have reported having been beaten up, detained in camps with no food or water and even traded as slaves before being held for ransom, forced labour or sexual exploitation.
A similar reorganization has also taken place within the Western Mediterranean route itself, with the Alboran Sea, which connects North-Eastern Morocco and South-Eastern Spain, being now more popular than the previously favoured Gibraltar strait or Ceuta and Melilla land borders where policing has increased.
Migrant arrivals on the Spanish coastline averaged just under 5,000 a year between 2010 and 2016, according to government data, down from peak of 39,180 in 2006. It is on track to top 11,000 this year, government data shows.
The country was unprepared to handle vulnerabile groups such as victims of trafficking or unaccompanied minors and refugees who should be channelled through asylum procedures, the UNHCR said.
Spain has so far given a lukewarm response to a request from Italy to fellow European Union countries to allow rescue boats carrying African migrants across the Mediterranean to dock in their ports and help handle tens of thousands of arrivals.
“What is clear is that, they (Spain’s government) have to get ready. They can’t be caught unprepared. What started happening elsewhere in Europe in 2015 can’t be allowed to happen here,” spokeswoman for the UNHCR in Spain Maria Jesus Vega said.
“It’s not yet an emergency, but you have to take into account that there are no structures here to deal with more arrivals.” (Writing by Julien Toyer; editing by Ralph Boulton)
Groupe PSA signed an agreement with five Moroccan universities, two American universities with campuses in Morocco, an engineering school of Ecoles Centrales based in Morocco, and a technological centre at the International University of Rabat.
The “Sustainable Mobility for Africa” OpenLab has committed to a four-year research program to explore sustainable mobility systems focused on three major areas:
• Electric mobility for the future to develop electric powertrains adapted to the African market,
• Renewable energy to support the spread of ecological and economical energy sectors,
• Logistics of the future, to find the optimum combination that meets the needs of the supply chain of a production unit and corresponds to local constraints.
It will draw on Groupe PSA’s scientific expertise and its university partners, as well as on the technology platforms in Morocco.
The Sustainable Mobility for Africa OpenLab partners are:
– International University of Rabat
– Université Mohammed V de Rabat
– Ibn Tofail University (Kenitra)
– Université Cadi Ayyad (Marrakesh)
– Euro-Mediterranean University of Fes (INSA EuroMéditerranée)
– Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech)
– Mississippi State University
– Ecole Centrale Casablanca
– Lafayette Institute
Groupe PSA is committed to an Open Innovation policy, involving building and managing relationships with different ecosystems: individuals, businesses, academia and institutions.Within the academia ecosystem, StelLab, established to strengthen scientific partnerships with public laboratories on the leading edge of innovation, forms a network of OpenLabs and academic chairs.
To better respond to social, environmental and economic challenges presented by the “car of the future”, this network of OpenLabs is spread across locations around the world. This allows it to share research teams and experimental resources from PSA and partner laboratories.
The Sustainable Mobility for Africa OpenLab strengthens a network of 17 active OpenLabs made up of 12 in France, 4 in China (1 in Beijing, 2 in Shanghai and 1 in Wuhan), and 1 in Brazil.
By ICR Newsroom
Cement sales in Morocco fell 7.6 per cent to 1.24Mt in May. The drop has been attributed to the recession in the real estate sector following a slump in social housing and the slowdown on construction sites as a result of the delay in the formation of a new government and adoption of Finance Law 2017.
In the first five months of 2017, cement sales retreated six per cent to 6.05Mt YoY.
The Moroccan citrus industry was able to successfully tap new markets while maintaining traditional ones in 2016-17, according to a recent report published by a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) agency.
A recently published report from the Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) highlighted a 2% increase in mandarin/tangerine exports, a 19% uptick in orange shipments and a 64% rise in lemons, although the latter was more of a rebound to normal levels.
“Morocco continues to make strides to diversify its exports, sending greater and greater volumes to Sub-Saharan Africa and finding new markets in the Middle East,” the FAS said in the Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) report.
“Reemerging MedFly problems were particularly disruptive to Morocco’s citrus exports in February 2017, including specifically its exports to the United States.”
Despite this issue, the United States still recorded a 7% rise in imports of Moroccan mandarins/tangerines to 41,173 metric tons (MT). However, this quantity is relatively small compared to exports to leading markets Russia and the EU, which combined account for a 70% share and both notched rises of 3% in volume.
The increase in volume was supported by an increase of around 5,000 hectares in the harvested area, while just over 1,000 extra hectares were added to the planting area in mandarins/tangerines.
It was in oranges that the diversification could truly be seen though, with Sub-Saharan Africa overtaking Russia to become Morocco’s second-largest destination for the crop with 9,812MT. This still falls significantly short of the EU’s 30,304MT of imports, but the old continent did see a sharp drop of 8% year-on-year.
Russia’s imports of the fruit did not fall however, increasing 5% to 8,189MT, while Canada (+392%; 2,766MT) and the Middle East (+4102%; 2,101MT) saw exponential rises in Moroccan orange purchases.
Leading lemon market Russia saw an 81% uptick in imports to hit 6,584MT, while Canada’s rose sharply by 962% up to 875MT and the EU fell 44% to 710MT.
Morocco is set to construct the Midelt Phase I CSP Project, which will generate solar power through an innovative hybrid concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) solution.
This is after the African Development Bank (AfDB) and the World Bank each approved finance of $25 million for the project.
The funds will be channeled via the Climate Investment Funds’ Clean Technology Fund (CIF CTF), the AfDB explained.
The project consists of two separate CSP plants, each with 150-190MW CSP capacity and a minimum of five hours of thermal storage.
Midelt Phase I CSP Project
The project’s innovative hybrid solar design will be built on a unique Public-Private Partnership between the Moroccan Agency for Sustainable Energy (MASEN) and private sector sponsors – with a build, own, operate and transfer (BOOT) project structure and implementation approach.
The envisaged installed capacity of the PV component could reach approximately 150-210MW, making the total capacity of each of the proposed plants 300-400MW; and the total capacity of this first phase 600-800MW.
AfDB’s Director, Climate Change and Green Growth, Anthony Nyong, said: “In 2015, the world saw an important shift in CSP investment from the developed to the developing world, particularly in Morocco.”
Nyong added: “Morocco’s path-changing Noor CSP programme under CTF, for which we serve as implementing agency, has been a critical element of that shift.
“This new project, which will be modelled on the Noor operational and financial structure, will increase the development of solar energy and further help diversify the country’s energy mix and enhance its energy security.
“We believe that the project can serve as a model for other countries in the region and beyond.”
Morocco’s renewable energy plan
The Midelt Phase I CSP Project is expected will significantly contribute to Morocco’s achievement of its Nationally Determined Contribution under the Paris Agreement, including its goal of achieving 52% of installed capacity from renewable energy (20% from solar) by 2030. Read more…
Morocco’s solar plan will also contribute to industrial development, competitiveness and could create about 30,000 jobs.
“Until now, CSP has been the dominant renewable energy technology assuring electricity during peak hours and by adding a PV component, we expect enhancing the reliability of the power plant,” AfDB’s CIF Programme Coordinator and Senior Climate Finance Officer, Leandro Azevedo, stated.
“The combination of these two technologies will allow Morocco to optimise the dispatch of generated power during the daytime by ensuring that the utilisation of the CSP component can be maximised during night-time through the use of thermal storage,” Azevedo said.
By Aziz El Yaakoubi
Royal Air Maroc expects the U.S. ban on laptops and other large electronic devices in aircraft cabins on direct flights to the United States to be lifted by July 19, a senior official from the state-owned airline said on Thursday.
The U.S. banned laptops in cabins on flights originating at 10 airports in eight countries – Egypt, Morocco, Jordan, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar and Turkey – in March to address fears that bombs could be concealed in them.
“Negotiations with the U.S. authorities are underway and we expect the ban to end by July 19 at the latest,” the official, who declined to be named, said.
U.S. Transportation Security Administration (TSA) spokesman Mike England said in an email that it was too early to confirm Royal Air Maroc’s compliance.
Royal Air Maroc operates flights to the United States from Casablanca’s Mohammed V International Airport.
Qatar Airways said on Thursday the ban had been lifted on its flights from Doha’s Hamad International Airport.
Emirates, Turkish Airlines and Etihad also announced a lifting of the ban on their flights this week.
Saudi Arabian Airlines (Saudia) has said it expects the ban to be lifted on flights from Jeddah and Riyadh by July 19.
Other airlines affected by the ban include Royal Jordanian , Kuwait Airways and EgyptAir.
The United States announced enhanced security measures for flights to the country on June 29. These require additional time to screen passengers and personal electronic devices for possible explosives.
Airlines that fail to meet the new security requirements could still face in-cabin electronics restrictions.
(Editing by Alexander Cornwell and Alexander Smith)
Morocco received approval for a US $25 million loan from the Climate Investment Funds’ Clean Technology Fund (CIF CTF) for a project to generate solar power through an innovative hybrid Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) and Photovoltaic (PV) solution.
The Midelt Phase I Concentrated Solar Power Project is being supported by the African Development Bank (AfDB) and the World Bank with an additional allocation of US$ 25 million in CTF resources.
The project consists of two separate CSP plants, each with 150-190 MW CSP capacity and a minimum of 5 hours of thermal storage. The envisaged installed capacity of the PV component could reach approximately 150-210 MW, making the total capacity of each of the proposed plants 300-400 MW and the total capacity of this first phase 600-800 MW.
The project’s innovative hybrid solar design is also built on a unique Public-Private Partnership between the Moroccan Agency for Sustainable Energy (MASEN) and private sector sponsors – with a Build, Own, Operate and Transfer project structure and implementation approach. Selected sponsors are expected to form a Special Purpose Company to build and operate the plants and sell the generated electricity to MASEN under a 25-year Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs). The process will be designed to allow the award of the plants to different bidders. The support from the CTF and AfDB is critical in driving down the cost of the project’s capital and lowering the Levelized Cost of Electricity.
“In 2015, the world saw an important shift in CSP investment from the developed to the developing world, particularly in Morocco” stated Anthony Nyong, AfDB’s Director, Climate Change and Green Growth. “Morocco’s path-changing Noor CSP program under CTF, for which we serve as implementing agency, has been a critical element of that shift. This new project, which will be modelled on the Noor operational and financial structure, will increase the development of solar energy and further help diversify the country’s energy mix and enhance its energy security. We believe that the project can serve as a model for other countries in the region and beyond,” he added.
The project will significantly contribute to the Government of Morocco’s achievement of its Nationally Determined Contribution under the Paris Agreement, including its goal of achieving 52% of installed capacity from renewable energy (20% from solar) by 2030. Morocco’s Solar Plan will also contribute to industrial development, competitiveness and could create about 30,000 jobs.
“Until now, CSP has been the dominant renewable energy technology assuring electricity during peak hours and by adding a PV component, we expect enhancing the reliability of the power plant” stated Leandro Azevedo, AfDB’s CIF Program Coordinator and Senior Climate Finance Officer. “The combination of these two technologies will allow Morocco to optimize the dispatch of generated power during the daytime by ensuring that the utilization of the CSP component can be maximized during night-time through the use of thermal storage,” he said.
Estimated greenhouse gas savings for the Noor-Midelt Phase 1 project is about 1.2 million tCO2 equivalent per year and 36 million tCO2 equivalent over the project’s 25 year-lifetime.
Written by Stuart Monteith – 05/07/2017 11:31 am
UK player Sound Energy has successfully extracted gas from the its Kechoula Discovery in Morocco.
The company confirmed that a test drill at a measured depth of 4612 feet confirmed a “producible gas accumulation”.
The company’s chief executive James Parsons said: “We are delighted by this early success at the Kechoula discovery and look forward to both the extended well test and to unlocking the deeper, and much larger, pre-salt potential in the future.
“Our attention now turns back to our very significant position in Eastern Morocco where we are preparing for further near term drilling and seismic.”
The company added that it believes the Sidi Moktar licence contains gas – based on a quantitive assessment prepared by a previous operator in 1998.
The company will now be required to reprocess the existing 2D seismic, acquire new 2D seismic and drilling results before forming its own estimate on the exploration potential at the site.
Casablanca Finance City (CFCA), the panafrican financial center based in Casablanca, Morocco, sealed today a strategic partnership with the Korean financial center Busan International Financial City (BIFC).
Under the terms of this signed agreement, in order to promote and develop their common interests, the BIFC Promotion Center and CFCA expressed their willingness to strengthen their cooperation in multiple areas.
Both parties have agreed to enable the sharing of expertise, and to work together in order to develop a financial hub specialized in maritime finance, derivatives market, back-up centers.
CFCA and BIFC’s Promotion Center will also cooperate in order to attract financial institutions, regional headquarters of multinationals, holding companies, and professional services operators.
They will also support companies from each jurisdiction to develop the business. CFCA will support South Korean companies willing to do business in Africa and aims at becoming the platform for regional headquarters planning to expand in the region. The BIFC Promotion Center will do the same for Moroccan companies (major companies and financial institutions) willing to develop their businesses in South Korea.
Furthermore, both financial centres will collaborate on other activities for the promotion of the areas of cooperation above, including assistance in welcoming business and financial delegations, joint organization of seminars, and mutual exchange of information subject to the prior written consent from the other Party.
Mr. Said Ibrahimi, CEO of CFCA said: “We have a lot in common. Not only a strategic geographical location-we both are at the crossroads of two major sea routes- but also our key positioning as regional financial Hub. This MoU will therefore aim at merging our channels of expertise and know how, while promoting investment opportunities in both directions”
Mr. Young Ho Park, Head of Busan International Financial City Promotion Center, Busan Economic Promotion Agency, said: “This MOU is significant in that it will help us to strengthen our cooperation with Casablanca Finance City across continents to share the experience and knowledge on policy schemes of these two promising financial cities.”
About Busan International Financial City’s Promotion Center
The Busan International Financial City Promotion Center was established by Busan Metropolitan City Government in 2008 and is under the umbrella of the Busan Economic Promotion Agency. The BIFC Promotion Center supports Busan City to grow into a global financial center specialized in maritime finance, derivatives market, and back-up centers. It aims at promoting Busan as an attractive Financial Hub for global financial institutions. BIFC Promotion Center’s missions include financial industry research, the establishment of a financial city base, the cultivation of financial manpower and financial city promotion.
CFCA is a public-private partnership dedicated to positioning Casablanca as an international economic and financial center and a premier gateway into African market for financial institutions, headquarters of multinational corporations and professional service firms. Casablanca Financial City Authority is empowered by law with the overall management and promotion of Casablanca Finance City.
Additional information about CFC can be found at www.casablancafinancecity.com |Twitter: @casafinancecity | LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/company/casablanca-finance-city
Fatim-zahra SAADANI, Tél : +212 5 20 30 03 80
CASABLANCA FINANCE CITY
Sultan Mohammed III issued a declaration to establish diplomatic relations with the USA./Ph. DR.
On December 1777, Sultan Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdullah, has been trying to seek diplomatic relations with the American Republic that has recently declared its independence in 1776.
As part of a very well studied step, the Sultan announced his desire to befriend the USA. His request, as indicated by the U.S Embassy and Consulate in Morocco website, was an endeavor to strengthen the country’s economy through maritime trade.
The Emperor, back in the time «wanted to establish state-controlled maritime trade as a new, more reliable, and regular source of income which would free him from dependency on the services of the standing army», the same source recalls.
Morocco as a first step opened its ports for American ships allowing them to freely navigate alongside the other vessels coming from countries that signed treaties with the kingdom, such as Russia, Malta, Sardinia, Germany and other European nations. The declaration issued by the Sultan made Morocco the first country to acknowledge the legitimacy of the USA as a republic with which trade and diplomatic relations should be maintained.
The Sultan’s Letters
However, American officials, led by Benjamin Franklin did not respond to the Moroccan request. One year later following the first declaration, Sultan Mohammed III, reissued another statement which was «belatedly learned». «The February 20 declaration was again sent to all consuls and merchants in the ports of Tangier, Sale, and Mogador informing them the Sultan had opened his ports to Americans and nine other European States», said the article.
The sultan’s will to put efforts into attracting the Americans did not stop right there. In 1778, Mohammed III named Etienne d’Audibert Caille, a French Merchant of Sale, a Consul for all the nations unrepresented in Morocco. Caille was occupied with the task of writing to the Americans and let them know formally that the Sultan is ready to sign a trade treaty to ensure their diplomatic ties. Unlike expectations, Caille’s attempts were met by negligence, as Benjamin Franklin did not trust him.
The Congress finally responding
The new consul wrote on the behalf of the Sultan to Franklin in 1779 and to the congress during the same year as well as to the American Representative in Madrid. All these letters fell on deaf ears, until 1780 when the American congress finally replied to the Moroccan request through a letter that said :
«We the Congress of the 13 United States of North America, have been informed of your Majesty’s favorable regard to the interests of the people we represent, which has been communicated by Monsieur Etienne d’Audibert Caille of Sale, Consul of Foreign nations unrepresented in your Majesty’s states. We assure you of our earnest desire to cultivate a sincere and firm peace and friendship with your Majesty and to make it lasting to all posterity. Should any of the subjects of our states come within the ports of your Majesty’s territories, we flatter ourselves they will receive the benefit of your protection and benevolence. You may assure yourself of every protection and assistance to your subjects from the people of these states whenever and wherever they may have it in their power. We pray your Majesty may enjoy long life and uninterrupted prosperity.»
After receiving the Congress letter the Sultan waited for two years while American ships were granted the same status given to the other European trade vessels entering the Kingdom’s ports. On May the 7th 1784, the «congress authorized its Ministers in Paris, Franklin, Jay, and Adams, to conclude treaties of amity and commerce with Russia, Austria, Prussia, Denmark, Saxony, Hamburg, great Britain, Spain, Portugal, Genoa, Tuscany, Rome, Naples, Venice, Sardinia, and the Ottoman Porte as well as the Barbary States of Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli».
The Treaty of Friendship and Amity
Despite the courageous step taken by the congress, delays kept annoying the Sultan who decided to act differently. On October the 11th 1784, Mohammed III detained an American merchant ship named Betsey in Tangier and ordered the American government to sign a treaty in exchange of the Men, ship and cargo. Indeed, in 1785, a treaty between the USA and Morocco was under negotiation and the Sultan released the Bestey crew and shipment.
Following that, «on October 11, 1785, the commissioners appointed Thomas Barclay, American Consul in Paris, to negotiate a treaty with Morocco on the basis of a draft treaty drawn up by the commissioners, the source stated. A Treaty of Friendship and Amity was signed in Marrakech by the Sultan by on June 23rd and was shipped to Barklay who signed it equally on June 28th.
A different treaty was signed later on July the 6th 1786 in Marrakech to identify American and Moroccan vessels. It was later in 1797, the USA established a Consulate in Morocco after realizing the satisfactory results of the treaty first requested by Sultan Mohammed III.
photos: Mary Mathis
M’HAMID EL GHIZLANE, Morocco — For generations, they were known as “rain nomads,” herders who moved constantly along the western rim of the Sahara Desert in search of a patch of green where their goats and camels could graze.
Then the rain, never plentiful, became even more sporadic. Temperatures got hotter. A dam choked another source of precious water, the Draa River. Not even the camels could endure.
Families whose lives revolved around the seasons and the needs of their livestock, gave up and became villagers. Over the years, many settled in this oasis town whose one main street merges into the edge of the desert.
About two-thirds of Morocco’s roughly 25,000 remaining nomads live in this region about 200 miles south of Casablanca, according to a 2014 government survey. The number of nomads had fallen by 63% from the previous decade, the same survey by the Moroccan High Commission for Planning found. While there are a number of reasons for the decline, climate change is among the main causes.
Laghroumi Mohammed uses a dowsing stick to search for underground water on his family’s …more
Climate conditions created by global warming trap hot air around the Sahara, so the desert actually is expanding, said Meryem Tanarhte, a Moroccan professor who holds a doctorate in atmospheric chemistry.
Tanarhte said Morocco has seen a decrease in precipitation, increasing heat extremes and severe drought over the past 30 years. And it will worsen.
The Max Planck Institute for Chemistry predicts that temperatures in the Middle East and North Africa will increase twice as fast as the global average. Even if the overall rise in temperatures can be held below the Paris climate accord’s target of 2 degrees Celsius, the entire region is likely to become uninhabitable, the institute said in a 2016 statement.
““The river died, and it killed us with it.”” – Laghroumi Mohammed
The conditions already are too extreme for the camels and goats essential to the nomads’ lifestyle. The animals provide milk, meat and skins. They are sources of transportation and traditional medicine, and can also be sold for income.
El Gasni Hamadi, 43, said his family’s camels died because of drought, and one animal is etched in his memory when she couldn’t get up one morning. “There was no answer,” he recalled. “No one to help; nothing to do. And she just died in my arms.”
Hamadi’s family settled here decades ago, when he was 7. The family had around 100 camels in 1995. Now, they have only 10.
Mohammed Boulfrifi, 37, said his family settled in M’Hamid, a town of 7,500, when their goats became so malnourished that their ribs were visible.
The Draa River, an important source of water for M’Hamid El Ghizlane and other Moroccan desert …more
“It’s not just us,” Boulfrifi said. “Half the village came from the desert before — they were nomadic. Half. Or more than half.”
The village has not escaped the effects of climate change. Ali Daimin, a shopkeeper in M’Hamid who holds a master’s degree in history and geography, said there never were sand dunes in town.
“It was land for agriculture, for everything,” he said. “Now part is completely covered by sand. You can’t use it for anything.”
George Zittis, a post-doctoral fellow specializing in climate simulations at the Cyprus Institute’s Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, predicted temperatures on the hottest days here would exceed 120 degrees by the end of the century. That is more than 10 degrees warmer than now.
“What we consider extreme in a present climate will be normal in a likely future, unless greenhouse gases are substantially reduced,” he said.
But Tanarhte said scarcity of water will have the biggest impact because agriculture depends on precipitation. “So if it doesn’t rain, everything goes wrong,” she said.
El Gasni Hamadi, standing in back row, was born a nomad but now teaches French and Arabic at the …more
Hamadi said precipitation has always been so sporadic that there is a saying in town: If an antelope is standing in the desert when it rains, one horn gets wet while the other stays perfectly dry.
A study by German scientists estimated that by 2050 annual rainfall, which averages only a couple of inches across the region, is likely to decrease by between three-quarters of an inch and 1.6 inches.
The Draa River long served as another source of water until the Mansour Eddahbi dam was built upstream near the city of Ouarzazate in the 1970s to provide hydroelectric power and irrigation, and to control floods. The flow downriver to M’Hamid decreased, and the problem has gotten worse as the river’s sources of water in the Atlas Mountains receive less rain.
It used to be easy to find water close to the surface of the dried river, but people are now forced to dig 25 feet or more, said Boulfrifi and Laghroumi Mohammed, another former nomad. When they do find water, it is often unusable because of salinization.
Mohammed, 52, once followed the date harvest for three months each year, pitching a tent of palm leaves along the river and digging shallow wells to bring water to his family.
Now many of those date palms are stumps blanketed by sand dunes. “The river died, and it killed us with it,” Mohammed said.
Mohammed said the river used to bring water to M’Hamid if even a quarter-inch of rain fell upstream. Now, there is nothing, even if three or four times that amount falls.
Other reasons also encourage nomads to give up their lifestyle — access to education and health care, and restrictions on movement across the border between Morocco and Algeria.
Hamadi recalls the dramatic change from living with camels and goats as a nomad to sitting in a classroom. He eventually became a teacher in M’Hamid. But people like him are an exception.
Many former nomads have found work in tourism as camel trekking guides.
The Moroccan High Commission for Planning said 84% of nomads have received no formal schooling. Boulfrifi, who settled in the village when he was 20, said there are few job opportunities for people like him.
“I don’t know how to write. I don’t know how to read. I have never been to school,” he said. “What kind of work can you do?”
The answer for him and many others has been tourism. Some former nomads lead treks to campsites in the desert or to the Erg Chigaga dunes, about 30 miles west of M’Hamid. Boulfrifi helps manage a desert camp.
“There is the military or tourism. And people, they prefer to be in tourism,” he said. “The people here, they like open air and to be free.”
But they also question whether tourism is really the answer. Many think there is a lack of government attention to the issues facing M’Hamid. So some residents have started their own initiatives.
Hamadi’s family launched a cooperative making date jam to provide a steady income for former nomads. An association works with the Agriculture Ministry to provide nomads with subsidized camel food, and another group helps women sell handicrafts.
Mouloud Tanzint, 33, who was born a nomad but now holds a master’s degree in human rights issues, said governments must take a global approach to climate change. He cited examples of polar ice melting and changes in precipitation in South America.
In the meantime, many here find little reason for optimism. “With the climate, we cannot decide,” said Daimin, the shopkeeper. “It’s not in our power. But based on what’s happened, it can only get worse and worse.”
Perry DeMarche and photographer Mary Mathis attended the School of International Training (SIT) Study Abroad journalism program in Morocco, where they produced this report in association with Round Earth Media, a nonprofit organization that supports young journalists. Yassine Chaoui contributed to the story.
Morocco’s King Mohammed VI called Monday for common African vision on ways of dealing with migration issue.
Addressing migration issue requires an innovative approach by creating synergies between development plans and migration policies, the king said in a speech at the 29th Summit of Heads of State and Government of the African Union (AU) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopian capital.
“Africa is losing its youths due to legal and illegal migration. There is no way such a loss can be justified. Should our young people’s fate be at the bottom of the Mediterranean? Should their mobility become a hemorrhage? Certainly not! I think it is up to us to deal with this issue properly,” the king said.
Morocco will submit a paper focusing on need to lay out a common African vision on migration, the king noted.
Construction Week Online
Rajiv Ravindran Pillai
Morocco will build the world’s largest desalination plant for drinking water and irrigation, following the signing of phase one of the $352.9m project.
The project will be developed by an international company Abengoa in the Agadir region in partnership with the National Office of Electricity and Drinking Water (ONEE) and BMCE Bank.
Mohamed Boussaid, Minister of Economy and Finance, and Aziz Akhannouch, Minister of Agriculture, chaired the signing of the conventions in the Souss-Massa region on 29 July, in Rabat, according to Morocco World News.
Akhannouch said that the project “constitutes a lever for sustainable socio-economic growth for the entire region.”
The project involves the construction of a desalination plant with a 275,000m3 total production capacity of desalinated water per day that will be the largest plant designed for drinking water and irrigation. The contract also provides the flexibility for the possible capacity expansion to up to 450,000m3.
The desalination plant, which also provides for the option of being operated on wind power, meets the demand of water for domestic use in addition to irrigation water needs in the area of Agadir.
Abengoa will continue to undertake the engineering, construction and operation and maintenance for a period of 27 years, as per the contract. Abengoa and the Moroccan company InfraMaroc will be investment partners and responsible for the project financing.
Abengoa has been present in Morocco since 1977 and has offices in Rabat and Casablanca.
By Samia Errazzouki
photo: Abderrahmane Mokhtari
Morocco’s surprise delay in announcing its proposed currency liberalisation came only because the government needed “further studies” of the plan, Prime Minister Saadeddine El Othmani said, dismissing speculation that it ran into significant problems.
Last week, Morocco’s central bank postponed for “a few days” its planned announcement of the first phase of liberalising the dirham, a key reform backed by the International Monetary Fund. The central back gave no reason for the delay.
In a weekend interview on Morocco’s two public television channels, Othmani said he met with Finance Minister Mohammed Boussaid and central bank Governor Abdellatif Jouahri to discuss the move to a flexible currency regime and “the decision will be made at the right time.”
The dirham’s value is now fixed by a peg that is weighted 60 percent to the euro and 40 percent to the dollar. The first stage of reform will let the currency trade in a narrow range, which will widen over the course of up to 15 years.
The apparent delay left traders worried about the progress of the liberalisation. Morocco has advanced more than its North African neighbours in fiscal reforms, but like Egypt, Tunisia and Algeria, it is wary of unrest from currency shifts or cuts in state subsidies on fuel and basic foods.
According to one source with knowledge of the process, the delay was caused by “last-minute fine tuning,” although neither the central bank nor the government has said exactly how long the announcement will be delayed.
“What is proposed is a move to 5 percent margin,” the prime minister said, confirming a previous Reuters report that trading fluctuation will widen to 2.5 percent each way. “It’s not a floating of the dirham, but it’s just a degree of flexibility in the price of the currency,” he said.
Trading fluctuations are now only about 0.6 percent.
Othmani also denied reports one reason for the delay was a depletion of foreign reserves by $4.4 billion in the last two months. All Moroccan institutions involved in the process would need to agree about moving to a flexible regime in “order to protect the purchasing power of the Moroccan citizen,” he said.
Othmani also said the government had decided to reform the currency. The central bank’s role was making preparations and “taking the necessary precautions, approving the procedures.”
“It has the tools to intervene in the appropriate time to maintain the trading margin. This is the general context,” Othmani said of the central bank.
(Editing by Patrick Markey, Larry King)
By Van Hipp
King Abdullah II of Jordan (L) arrives at the inauguration of an exhibition in the Museum Mohamed VI of Modern and Contemporary Art, where he is received by King Mohammed VI of Morocco (R) and painter Mehdi Qotbi (C), in the Moroccan capital Rabat on March 23, 2017. (Fadel Senna/AFP/Getty Images)
It was 1777. America, the fledgling young republic that had declared its independence from British rule the year before, was struggling to survive. There was one nation, however, that stood by America in its early days and was actually the first country in the world to recognize America as a sovereign nation. France, you might guess? No, while the French were a great help militarily during the American Revolutionary War, the first nation that actually recognized our sovereignty was Morocco. In 1777, Moroccan Sultan Mohammed III became the first head of state to recognize the United States and added America to the nations Morocco’s ports were open to.
Almost a decade later, in 1786, the United States of America and Morocco signed the US-Morocco Treaty of Peace and Friendship which, to this day, remains the longest standing treaty in our nation’s history. And in 1789, President George Washington actually sent a copy of the U.S. Constitution to Morocco.
The Sultan, who was a direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, came from the Alaouite Dynasty. Today, his descendant, Mohammed VI sits on the throne as King of Morocco. Morocco is America’s oldest ally, and over these past 240 years, has remained one of America’s best allies. Over the years they have been rock solid and steady in support of the United States. Their relationship with the USA has often been overshadowed by others and because the Moroccans don’t always tout the long-standing relationship on the world stage, they truly are America’s forgotten ally.
Consider the following:
Morocco has long sided with the United States during wartime throughout American history. During the first Gulf War, Morocco was the only Maghreb (Northwest Africa) member of the U.S. led coalition.
Morocco has been a key ally in the United States’ War on Terror and according to Wall Street International earlier this year, Moroccan intelligence has dismantled 40 terrorist cells and arrested 548 people since 2015.
U.S. Africa Command and U.S. Special Forces Command have worked closely with Morocco over the years conducting various training exercises, including the recent Operation Flintlock 2017.
Moroccan and American troops have engaged in joint airborne training and Morocco has a partnership with the Utah National Guard.
Morocco has provided key counterterrorism intelligence to the U.S. and its allies on ISIS. According to former U.S. Ambassador to Morocco Marc Ginsberg last year, Moroccan Special Forces actually deployed with American and French counterterrorism special forces in Europe to uncover ISIS cells.
A free-trade agreement (FTA) exists between the United States and Morocco and Moroccans have actually bought more goods and services from the United States than we buy from them.
Morocco also has a solid and reliable leader in its King, Mohammed VI, who has carried on the traditions of his late father, King Hassan II. He has granted more power to women and continues Morocco’s tradition of good relations with Christians and Jews.
In fact, International Fellowship of Christians and Jews (IFCJ) Vice President Yael Eckstein has stated that Morocco defines tolerance and “is one of the few places where Christians, Muslims and Jews coexist in peace and mutual respect.” In 2011, the King appointed respected international human rights activist Driss El Yazami to chair Morocco’s National Human Rights Council. El Yazami is a strong friend of the United States. He visited Charleston, South Carolina, two years ago following the Emanuel AME Church tragedy to praise the people of Charleston for showing others how to come together with strong spirit which “is a real message for hope for all of us.”
To be clear, America has other solid allies in the Muslim world like King Abdullah of Jordan, who is also descended from the Prophet Muhammad, and President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi of Egypt, who had the guts to stand up to the Muslim Brotherhood. The U.S. also has to deal with old allies who are now unreliable, like Turkey. Last year, Turkey’s autocratic ruler Recip Tayyip Erodgan shut down power at the Incrilik Air Base and temporarily prohibited all U.S. Air Force planes stationed there from taking off and landing. This at the very NATO base where reports estimate close to 50 B-61 nuclear bombs are housed in underground vaults.
Today, the United States is confronted with the most complex foreign policy situation in our nation’s history. Morocco, America oldest ally, and yes, our forgotten ally, can now be a bridge to both Africa, where radical Islam is on the rise, and to the Middle East and Muslim world. It can also help fill the void being left by once reliable allies like Turkey. Now is the time to strengthen and foster America’s relationship with our oldest ally — America’s forgotten ally — Morocco.
Van Hipp is chairman of American Defense International, Inc. (ADI), a Washington, D.C. consulting firm. He is former chairman of the South Carolina Republican Party, and served on the Presidential Electoral College in 1988. He is the author of “The New Terrorism: How to Fight It and Defeat It.” To read more of his reports, Go Here Now.
Morocco’s economy grew by 4.8 percent in the second quarter of this year, up by one percentage point over last year, local media reported on Sunday.
The official High Commission for Planning said in a note that the growth was mainly due to the rise in agricultural output by 17.4 percent in the second quarter this year, up by 3.2 points from the first quarter, the site of the Moroccan daily l’Economiste reported.
Apart from the agriculture sector, which accounts for more than 15 percent of the country’s economy, the non-agricultural sector grew by 3.3 percent in the second quarter from a year ago, the commission added.
As for the third quarter of 2017, the official planning agency expects the economy to grow by 4.1 percent in compared to 1.3 percent a year earlier.
The Moroccan economy was hit hard by a drought in the fall of 2015, which compromised the 2016 agriculture production. Helped by heavy rainfall in late 2016, the economy has greatly improved.
By Ekemini Ladejobi
Nigeria has successfully brokered peace between Morocco and Saharawi Democratic Republic (SDR) on the wordings of the report of the human Rights abuses between the two countries.
The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) on Sunday reports that mediation took place barely a day after Nigeria assumed the leadership of the AU Peace and Security Council (PSC) at the 31st Executive Council meeting of the 39th AU Summit in Addis Ababa.7
Me. Geoffrey Onyeama, Nigeria’s Minister of Foreign Affairs who led the peace team told newsmen that Nigeria’s leadership of the PSC in peace and conflict came at the right time.
“The invitation for Nigeria to mediate in the crisis with Morocco and SDR is the new confidence that the AU has in Nigeria and to call on her to play a bigger role in the organisation.
“We are going to do just that; we have this responsibility and we are going to assert it to the benefit of the continent.’’
The minister explained further that Morocco had threatened to block the work of the Executive Council meeting of the AU because the council could not arrive at an agreement on the report of an evaluation mission to the SDR.
`We could not arrive at any agreement because those who were supporting Morocco stuck to their positions and wanted to see the paragraph removed while those for SDR wanted it to stay.
“Nigeria agreed to mediate and we met with the representatives of the two countries, and we were able to find an acceptable solution and the council of ministers were very relieved.
“We were able to get them to agree to the text the council proposed to them.
“It was not easy to get both countries to agree but it is very important for the organisation because, we have to look at the bigger picture, Onyeama said.
Meanwhile, Prof. Yemi Osinbajo, Acting President of Nigeria is expected to attend the 29th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of the AU.
Onyeama said Osinbajo will address the Union mostly on the institutional reforms and the issue of financing the AU.
“We want to reform African Union and there is a proposal already on the table especially on how to finance the union.
“Nigeria is one of the key contributors to the union and of course the acting president will be engaged in the whole issues that concern ECOWAS including issues of finance and institutional reform, ‘’ he said.
Saharawi Democratic Republic is a partially recognised state that controls a thin strip of area in the Western Sahara region and claims sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony.
SADR was proclaimed by the Polisario Front on February 27, 1976, in Bir Lehlou, Western Sahara, a former communist liberation force (modeled after that of Cuba) which has since reformed its ideological and political views.
It calls the territories under its control the Liberated Territories or the Free Zone.
Morocco controls and administers the rest of the disputed territory and calls these lands its Southern Provinces.
The SADR government considers the Moroccan-held territory to be occupied territory, while Morocco considers the much smaller SADR-held territory to be a buffer zone. (NAN)
The North Africa Post
The Polisario is a ‘totalitarian organization’, representing an ideological anachronism peculiar to the Cold War era, said Spanish writer Jose Mariia Lizundia in an opinion article on La Provincia.
The Polisario “is a myth created by some Sahraoui students in Moroccan universities in the 1970s in connivance with leftist Spanish military officials of the Franco era and other left-wing politicians and newspapers in Spain,” explained Lizundia in the article that describes the Algerian-based separatists as a “relic of the Cold War.”
Historically speaking, the area internationally known as “Western Sahara” has never been an independent state, he wrote, noting that the Sahara has always been a part of Morocco. Likewise, he laid bare historical fallacies by separatists and their desperate attempts at falsifying historical facts saying that terms such as “Sahraoui Nation” has never existed. The Sahara was rather inhabited by tribes pledging allegiance to Moroccan Sultans.
In his article, the Spanish writer shed light on facets of the firm grip held by the Polisario in the camp of Tindouf. He said the separatist movement adopts “Stalinian” methods to purge any opposition to their authoritarianism in their rear base in the Tindouf camps, where slavery, summary executions, arbitrary detentions and torture are inflicted on people held against their will.
He deplored that the Polisario lacks independence in decision-making, as it remains a puppet manipulated by the Algerian military junta.
Lizundia highlighted the suffering of the people held within the Polisario-run Tindouf camps who face lethal reprisal if they venture to speak up their minds against the Polisario administration.
Yet, in his analysis, the Spanish writer gave a detailed description of the oppressive nature of the Polisario militias but fell short of highlighting the role of Algeria in creating, arming and protecting the separatist front. After all, it is Algeria, under putschist President Boumedien, that instigated the Polisario to wage war on Morocco and spent its oil mantra on nurturing a separatist thesis that poisoned Moroccan-Algerian relations for decades.
Algeria has also relegated the administration of a part of its territory in Tindouf to the Polisario where they engage in all sorts of abhorrent human rights violations, terrorism and criminal activities.
In the 1970s and 1980s, Algeria offered a sanctuary to Polisario militias in their guerrilla war on Morocco using hit-and-run tactics. Having recently received military equipment from the Algerian regime, the Polisario is becoming more than ever a tool used by Algiers to destabilize Morocco and sap all efforts seeking to find a lasting, political and mutually acceptable solution based on the Moroccan autonomy initiative.
Posted by North Africa Post
North Africa Post’s news desk is composed of journalists and editors, who are constantly working to provide new and accurate stories to NAP readers.
Abdeljalil Bounhar/AP Photo
Abdelhak El Khiyame claims he has disbanded 167 terrorist cells. But is he really Morocco’s answer to the FBI, or is it just hype?
Abdelhak El Khiyame, the director of the Central Bureau for Judicial Investigation speaking to the media after dismantling a militant cell based in the southern city of El Jadida, on Jan 29, 2017 in Sale, Morocco.
Had it succeeded, the plot could have wiped out Morocco’s valuable tourist industry overnight. Holed up in the breezy surfing town of Essaouira, a cell of would-be ISIL gunmen were plotting an armed rampage, bringing extremist carnage to a resort famous for its hippy image.
But on June 22, the four suspects were arrested before they could act, sparing the resort once frequented by rock star Jimi Hendrix from mass bloodshed.
Officials claim they were aiming to repeat ISIL’s 2015 atrocity on a resort near Sousse in Tunisia, in which the group massacred 38 people and killed off the country’s tourism trade at the same time.
Just how close the Essaouira cell was to carrying out their attack remains unclear. But either way, the fact that Morocco remains safe enough to attract some ten million tourists a year is testament to the record of the country’s chief “Terrorist Hunter” — Abdelhak El Khiyame, the head of the Central Bureau of Judicial Investigation.
The dapper policeman, who leads Morocco’s answer to the FBI, claims the country’s security services have thwarted more than 340 terror plots since 2002 and dismantled 167 terrorist cells.
Much as human rights groups sometimes query his agency’s methods, few can dispute the end results.
Since the 9/11 attack in 2001, Morocco has had only two major terror incidents: a suicide bombing in Casablanca in 2003 that killed 45, and a 2011 bombing in Marrakech that killed 17.
Moroccan media gives much of the credit to Mr El Khiyame, 59, a career detective who has brought modernising zeal to the country’s security apparatus.
What is equally remarkable is that people actually know who he is. Unlike counter-terrorism chiefs in other Arab countries who seldom appear in public, Mr El Khiyame is a familiar face on TV, giving interviews to news channels and newspapers.
Favouring smart suits with waistcoats, ties and matching pocket handkerchiefs, he is the polar opposite of the stereotypical Arab intelligence spymaster, looking more like Hercule Poirot or a university don.
He also styles himself as a man on a personal mission, declaring: “I fight terrorism every day because these people deface the covenant of Islam I believe in.”
In breaking the mould of his shadowy profession, Mr El Khiyame aims to draw a line under a long period in which Morocco’s security services were feared and mistrusted.
During the “years of lead” era — used to describe the reign of the previous monarch, King Hassan II — dissidents and democracy activists were ruthlessly suppressed and often “disappeared”.
While the human rights climate has improved under Hassan’s son, King Mohammed VI, the burgeoning war on terror has made the role of the security services more crucial than ever.
For as much as Morocco may have been spared bloodshed on its own soil, it has produced its fair share of violent extremists. By Mr El Khiyame’s own estimate, more than 1,600 Moroccans have gone to fight for extremist groups abroad, mostly in Iraq and Syria, with around 400 killed in combat.
Members of Morocco’s diaspora have also played their part in recent terror atrocities in Europe. Two of the men involved in June’s attacks at London Bridge in Britain had Moroccan ancestry, as did several of those involved in the Paris attacks in November 2015.
Moroccans were among those convicted over the 2004 Madrid train bombings, which killed 192 people, and in 2006, US officials said that at least nine men involved in suicide bomb attacks in Iraq had come from the same Moroccan town of Tetouan.
Mr El Khiyame blames much of the problem on poor schooling, which allows young Moroccans to be brainwashed into joining ISIL. Following the arrest of 10 female ISIL suspects last year, he pointedly criticised Morocco’s education system, asking: “Where is the role of parents, school and civil society in such cases?”
But while he supports “hearts and minds” strategies designed to turn young Moroccans away from extremism, he also backs Morocco’s tough anti-terror measures — such as a law passed in 2015 making it illegal for anyone to join ISIL abroad.
His agency co-operates closely with the West, and was credited by France in 2015 for information that helped them track down the mastermind of the Paris attack, Abdelhamid Abaaoud, who was killed in a raid on a Paris flat five days after the attack.
Mr El Khiyame has also accused his European counterparts of not doing enough. He claims to have warned Belgian officials as far back as 2008 that the Molenbeek district of Brussels — where Abaaoud and two other attackers grew up — “could constitute a real breeding ground for terrorists”.
“Belgium is becoming the Daesh of Europe,” he warned last year. “Terrorism has no religion and no nationality”.
Mr El Khiyame has his own critics too. Despite attempts by the Moroccan authorities to improve their observance of judicial process, Ahmed Benchemsi, of Human Rights Watch, said there were still cases where suspects seemed to have been deceived or coerced into signing confessions.
“This follows a pattern we have documented in the past where people were compelled to sign admission statements either by torture or psychological pressure,” he said.
A media source who had dealt with Mr El Khiyame’s agency added that despite his openness, it was seldom possible to verify any of the claims made about breaking up terrorist cells.
In one case, where the agency said it had arrested 45 suspects in a single village, journalists’ own inquiries had suggested only one was an actual suspect and the rest were simply neighbours caught up in a sweep.
Whether last week’s arrests fall into that category, nobody knows. But genuine or not, the more the agency proclaims its victories, the more the Terrorist Hunter also has to live up to. Were ISIL to stage a major attack in Essaouira now, even his considerable PR skills might be put to the test.
The North Africa Post
The European Police Office (Europol) foiled in Rotterdam port an attempt at trafficking a considerable cargo of arms to terrorists in the Spanish-occupied cities of Ceuta and Melilla in northern Morocco, Moroccan newspaper al Ahdat reported.
The seized weapons comprised pistols and machine guns and were intended to be smuggled through Sardinia to North Africa, the paper said.
The weapons were ordered by terrorists in northern Morocco with a view to perpetrating attacks undermining public order, said the paper, recalling that Morocco’s anti-terrorist agency, the Central Bureau of Judicial Investigations (BCIJ), had dismantled a terrorist cell planning to use fire arms to assassinate political figures.
Morocco has been cooperating closely with EU member states on security issues leading to joint operations especially with Spain and France against terrorist cells.
Last September, Former Interior Minister said that he discussed with European Commissioner for Migration and Home Affairs, Dimitris Avramopoulos, the possibility of sealing a comprehensive agreement on security cooperation between relevant Moroccan authorities and the Europol.
In the annual study dubbed: “Terrorism in North Africa and the Sahel in 2016”, issued by the Inter-University Centre on Terrorism Studies (IUCTS) and the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Morocco has been described as the country “least affected” by terrorism in North Africa and the Sahel with zero attacks reported in 2016.
Posted by North Africa Post
North Africa Post’s news desk is composed of journalists and editors, who are constantly working to provide new and accurate stories to NAP readers.